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Please answer the 2 questions:
1. “It did not take long before every member of the task forces came to see that the culture was built around strong respect for the individual at the expense of effective teamwork. For example, each individual brought his or her own deeply held beliefs and way of working to every discussion. They were far more inclined to assert their favorite solution to a problem than listen to a competing perspective. People didn’t work well with those  from other units. At the same time, they avoided conflict; they would not discuss these problems” (Heifetz & Linsky, 2017, p. 105) 
Question: Thinking from a lens of adaptive and technical leadership, how are cultures of silos created? And, what are examples of strategies/approaches leaders might use to foster a culture of collaboration and teamwork?
2. “It is not always possible to show people the future. It might not exist. You might not even be able to envision it yourself. But if it is possible, revealing the future is an extremely useful way to mobilize adaptive work and yet avoid becoming the target of resistance. If people can glimpse the future, they are much less likely to fixate on what they might have to shed…Confidence in the future is crucial is the face of the inevitable counter-pressures from those who will doggedly cling to the present, and for whom you become the source of unwanted disturbance” (Heifetz, & Linsky, 2017, p. 122)
Question: Why is it important for leaders to be able to articulate a tangible vision to stakeholders? What approaches might leaders employ to translate a vision into practice that becomes a part of the institutional culture (e.g., strategic planning, day-to-day operations, student & employee experience, etc.)?